Victim Services Threatened by a Depleted Perpetrator-Financed Crime Victims Fund References and Resources

August 1, 2020

Written By: Nicolyn Charlot, Brittany Gay, Elizabeth Baker, John Hamel, Jacqueline Fisher, L.B. Klein, Cathryn Richmond, & Sheridan Miyamoto

Additional Contributors: Abigail Akande, Caroline Friedman Levy, Megan Greeson, Melanie Hetzel-Riggin, Canan Karatekin, Alex Piquero, & Heather Risser



  1. Morgan, R. E., Oudekerk, B. A. (2019). Criminal Victimization, 2018. U.S. Department of Justice.

  2. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau (2020). Child Maltreatment 2018.

  3. Federal Bureau of Investigation (2019). Murder.

  4. Mulder, T. M., Kuiper, K. C., van der Put, C. E., Stams, G. J. J., & Assink, M. (2018). Risk factors for child   neglect: A meta-analytic review. Child Abuse & Neglect, 77, 198-210.

  5. Stith, S. M., Liu, T., Davies, L. C., Boykin, E. L., Alder, M. C., Harris, J. M., … & Dees, J. E. M. E. G. (2009). Risk factors in child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(1), 13-29.

  6. Capaldi, D. M., Knoble, N. B., Shortt, J. W., & Kim, H. K. (2012). A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence. Partner Abuse, 3, 231-280.

  7. Dardis, C. M., Dixon, K. J., Edwards, K. M., & Turchik, J. A. (2015). An examination of the factors related to dating violence perpetration among young men and women and associated theoretical explanations: A review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 16, 136-152.

  8. Schumacher, J. A., Smith Slep, A. M., & Heyman, R. E. (2001). Risk factors for male-to-female  partner psychological abuse. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 6, 255-268.

  9. Stith, S. M., Smith, D. B., Penn, C. E., Ward, D. B., & Tritt, D. (2004). Intimate partner physical  abuse perpetration and victimization risk factors: A meta-analytic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 65-98.

  10. Coker, A. L., Davis, K. E., Arias, I., Desai, S., Sanderson, M., Brandt, H. M., & Smith, P. H. (2002). Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 260-268.

  11. Arnow, B. A. (2004). Relationships between childhood maltreatment, adult health and psychiatric outcomes, and medical utilization. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 10-15.

  12. Lagdon, S., Armour, C., & Stringer, M. (2014). Adult experience of mental health outcomes as a result of intimate partner violence victimisation: A systematic review. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(1), 1-12.

  13. Horan, J. M., & Widom, C. S. (2015).  Cumulative childhood risk and adult functioning in abused and neglected children grown up. Development and Psychopathology, 27(3), 927-941.

  14. Morrison, S. E., Bruce, C., & Wilson, S. (2018). Children’s disclosure of sexual abuse: A systematic review of qualitative research exploring barriers and facilitators. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 27(2), 176-194.

  15. Schaeffer, P., Leventhal, J. M., & Asnes, A. G. (2011). Children’s disclosures of sexual abuse: Learning from direct inquiry. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35(5), 343-352.

  16. Evans, S. E., Steel, A. L., & DiLillo, D. (2013). Child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms: Does perceived social support play a buffering role?. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(11), 934-943.

  17. Trevillion, K., Oram, S., Feder, G., & Howard, L. M. (2012). Experiences of domestic violence and mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 7(12), 1-12.

  18. Pavao, J., Alvarez, J., Baumrind, N., Induni, M., & Kimerling, R. (2007). Intimate partner violence and housing instability. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(2), 143-146.

  19. Dichter, M. E., Wagner, C., Borrero, S., Broyles, L., & Montgomery, A. E. (2017). Intimate partner violence, unhealthy alcohol use, and housing instability among women veterans in the Veterans Health Administration. Psychological Services, 14(2), 246-249.

  20. Risser, H. J., & Schewe, P. A. (2013). Predictors of treatment engagement for young children exposed to violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 22(1), 87-108.

  21. D’Andrea, W., Ford, J., Stolbach, B., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. A. (2012). Understanding interpersonal trauma in children: Why we need a developmentally appropriate trauma diagnosis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(2), 187-200.

  22. Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime (June, 2006). Child Abuse; How to Help Victims. Retrieved from

  23. Office for Victims of Crime (n.d.). Victims of Crime Act: Rebuilding lives through assistance and compensation. Retrieved from

  24. Arroyo, K., Lundahl, B., Butters, R., Vanderloo, M., & Wood, D. S. (2017). Short-term interventions for survivors of intimate partner violence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18(2), 155-171.

  25. Langley, A. K., Gonzalez, A., Sugar, C. A., Solis, D., & Jaycox, L. (2015). Bounce back: Effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention for multicultural children exposed to traumatic events. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(5), 853.

  26. Eckhardt, C.I., Murphy, C.M., Whitaker, D.J., Sprunger, J., Dykstra, R., & Woodard, K.(2013). The effectiveness of intervention programs for perpetrators and victims of intimate partner violence.  Partner Abuse, 4(2), 196-231.

  27. Klein, L. B., Chesworth, B. R., Howland-Myers, J. R., Rizo, C. F., & Macy, R. J. (2019). Housing interventions for intimate partner violence survivors: A systematic review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 1-16.

  28. Center for Human Services Research University at Albany State University of New York (January, 2014). Evaluation of Co-locating Domestic Violence Advocates in New York State Child Protective Services Offices. Retrieved from:

  29. Campbell, R., Patterson, D., Lichty, L.F. (2005). The effectiveness of sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs: A review of psychological, medical, legal, and community outcomes. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 6(4), 313-329.

  30. Nugent-Borakove, M.E., Fanflik, P., Troutman, D., Johnson, N., Burgress, A., O’Connor, A. (May, 2006) Testing the efficacy of SANE/SART programs: Do they make a difference in sexual assault arrest &; prosecution outcomes? National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Retrieved from: . Accessed April 13, 2020.

  31. Sokoloff, N. J., & Dupont, I. (2005). Domestic violence at the intersections of race, class, and gender: Challenges and contributions to understanding violence against marginalized women in diverse communities. Violence Against Women, 11(1), 38-64.

  32. Alessi, E. J., Kahn, S., & Van Der Horn, R. (2017). A qualitative exploration of the premigration victimization experiences of sexual and gender minority refugees and asylees in the United States and Canada. The Journal of Sex Research, 54(7), 936-948.

  33. Price-Feeney, M., Jones, L. M., Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2018). The relationship between bias-based peer victimization and depressive symptomatology across sexual and gender identity. Psychology of Violence, 8(6), 680.

  34. Merrill, G., & Wolfe, V. (2000).  Battered gay men:  An exploration of abuse, help seeking, and why the stay.  Journal of Homosexuality, 39 (2), 1-30.

  35. Kulkarni, S. (2019). Intersectional trauma-informed intimate partner violence (IPV) services: Narrowing the gap between IPV service delivery and survivor needs. Journal of Family Violence, 34(1), 55-64.

  36. Office for Victims of Crime (n.d.). Crime Victims Fund.

  37. Sacco, Lisa N. (2020). The Crime Victims Fund: Federal support for victims of crime. Congressional Research Service.

Additional Resources

  • Allnock, D., & Miller, P. (2013). No one noticed, no one heard: A study of disclosures of childhood abuse. National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Retrieved from;jsessionid=4678A569F78564CCED59B509C1E84974?sequence=1
  • Austin, J. S. (2000). When a child discloses sexual abuse: Immediate and appropriate teacher responses. Childhood Education, 77(1), 2-5.
  • Brown, N. R., Kallivayalil, D., Mendelsohn, M., & Harvey, M. R. (2012). Working the double edge: Unbraiding pathology and resiliency in the narratives of early-recovery trauma survivors. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(1), 102-111.
  • Cattaneo, L. B., & Goodman, L. A. (2015). What is empowerment anyway? A model for domestic violence practice, research, and evaluation. Psychology of Violence, 5(1), 84-94.
  • Collin-Vézina, D., De La Sablonnière-Griffin, M., Palmer, A. M., & Milne, L. (2015). A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 43, 123-134.
  • Hamel, J. (2007). Male victims of domestic violence and reasons why they stay with their abuser. In: N. Jackson (Ed.), Domestic Violence Encyclopedia (pp. 457-459). New York: Routledge.
  • Hamel, J. (2014).  Gender-inclusive treatment of intimate partner abuse, 2nd Edition: Evidence-based approaches.  New York:  Springer.
  • Harvey, M. R., Mondesir, A. V., & Aldrich, H. (2007). Fostering resilience in traumatized communities: A community empowerment model of intervention. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 14(1-2), 265-285.
  • Helfrich, C. A., & Simpson, E. K. (2006). Improving services for lesbian clients: What do domestic violence agencies need to do? Health Care for Women International, 27, 344–361.
  • Hines, D., Brown, J., & Dunning, E. (2007). Characteristics of callers to the Domestic Abuse Helpline for Men. Journal of Family Violence, 22(2), 63-72.
  • Krug, E. G., Mercy, J. A., Dahlberg, L. L., & Zwi, A. B. (2002). The world report on violence and health. The Lancet, 360, 1083-1088.
  • Kulkarni, S., Bell, H., & Wylie, L. (2010). Why don’t they follow through?: Intimate partner survivors’ challenges in accessing health and social services. Family & Community Health, 33(2), 94-105.
  • McElvaney, R., Greene, S., & Hogan, D. (2014). To tell or not to tell? Factors influencing young people’s informal disclosures of child sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(5), 928-947.
  • Nikulina, V., & Widom, C. S. (2013). Child maltreatment and executive functioning in middle adulthood: A prospective examination. Neuropsychology, 27(4), 1-19.
  • Norman, R. E., Byambaa, M., De, R., Butchart, A., Scott, J., & Vos, T. (2012). The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS medicine, 9(11), 517-543.
  • O’Leary, P., Coohey, C., & Easton, S. D. (2010). The effect of severe child sexual abuse and disclosure on mental health during adulthood. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 19(3), 275-289.
  • Posick, C., & Gould, L. A. (2015). On the general relationship between victimization and offending: Examining cultural contingencies. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 195-204.
  • Reitsema, A. M., & Grietens, H. (2016). Is anybody listening? The literature on the dialogical process of child sexual abuse disclosure reviewed. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 17(3), 330-340.
  • Sable, M. R., Danis, F., Mauzy, D. L., & Gallagher, S. K. (2006). Barriers to reporting sexual assault for women and men: Perspectives of college students. Journal of American College Health, 55(3), 157-162
  • Schaefer, J. D., Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Danese, A., Fisher, H. L., Houts, R., … & Caspi, A. (2018). Adolescent victimization and early-adult psychopathology: approaching causal inference using a longitudinal twin study to rule out noncausal explanations. Clinical Psychological Science, 6(3), 352-371.
  • Silverman, J. G., Decker, M. R., Reed, E., & Raj, A. (2006). Intimate partner violence victimization prior to and during pregnancy among women residing in 26 US states: Associations with maternal and neonatal health. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 195(1), 140-148.
  • Ullman, S. E., & Filipas, H. H. (2005). Gender differences in social reactions to abuse disclosures, post-abuse coping, and PTSD of child sexual abuse survivors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(7), 767-782.
  • Williams, A. L., & Merten, M. J. (2014). Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: Testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(9), 1563-1575.
  • Wolf, M. E., Ly, U., Hobart, M. A., & Kernic, M. A. (2003). Barriers to seeking police help for intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence, 18(2), 121-129.
  • Yehuda, R., Lehrner, A., & Peters Bronx, J. J. (2018). Intergenerational transmission of trauma effects: putative role of epigenetic mechanisms. The Origin of Studies of Intergenerational Trauma Effects, 17, 243-257